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Economic Category: Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth

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Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Article

1. A History of the Bar Code

This article explains how the bar code was developed and its changing use throughout its invention. It also gives indications of possible future uses for the bar code. [Details...]

2. An Economic History of New Zealand in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Living standards in New Zealand were among the highest in the world between the late nineteenth century and the 1960's. But New Zealand's economic growth was very sluggish between 1950 and the early 1990s, and most Western European countries, as well as several in East Asia, overtook New Zealand in terms of real per capita income. By the early 2000s, New Zealand's GDP per capita was in the bottom half of the developed world. [Details...]

3. An Overview of the Economic History of Uruguay since the 1870s

This article describes Uruguay's early history and its economic performance in the long-run as well as its comparative performance. [Details...]

4. Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution

This article examines the historical debate about child labor in Britain, Britain's political response to problems with child labor, quantitative evidence about child labor during the 1800's, and economic explanations of the practice of child labor. [Details...]

5. Composite Indicators of Poverty and Living Standards

This article describes the indicators which can be used to measure the extent to which the inhabitants of a country are experiencing poverty. [Details...]

6. Cotton Gin

The cotton gin developed by Eli Whitney in 1793 marked a major turning point in the economic history of the Southern United States. This article describes what came before Eli Whitney and his innovative design. [Details...]

7. Economic History of Portugal

This article begins with the roots of Portugal to give a bit of economic history. It starts with the early centuries until the Spanish rule in the eighteenth century and describes its economic evolution. [Details...]

8. Economic History of Tractors in the United States

The farm tractor is one of the most important and easily recognizable technological components of modern agriculture in the United States. Its development in the first half of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the nature of farm work, significantly altered the structure of rural America, and freed up millions of workers to be absorbed into the rapidly growing manufacturing and service sectors of the country. The tractor represents an important application of the internal combustion engine, rivaling the automobile and the truck in its economic impact. [Details...]

9. English Poor Laws

For nearly three centuries, the Poor Law constituted "a welfare state in miniature," relieving the elderly, widows, children, the sick, the disabled, and the unemployed and underemployed (Blaug 1964). This essay will outline the changing role played by the Poor Law, focusing on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [Details...]

10. From GATT to WTO: The Evolution of an Obscure Agency to One Perceived as Obstructing Democracy

In the 1940s, working with the British government, the United States developed two innovations to expand and govern trade among nations. These mechanisms were called the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the ITO (International Trade Organization). This articles explains those mechanisms as well as the evolution of the World Trade Organization (WTO). [Details...]

11. Historical Political Business Cycles in the United States

The notion that incumbents will alter the economic environment for their short-term political gain at the expense of long-term economic stability is referred to as generating a political business cycle. This article details the history of this notion by using past president's policies as examples. [Details...]

12. History of Workplace Safety in the United States, 1880-1970

This article explains the dangers of certain jobs such as mining, manufacturing, and railroad working to examine the history of workplace safety in the United States from 1880-1970. [Details...]

13. History of the U.S. Telegraph Industry

The electric telegraph was one of the first telecommunications technologies of the industrial age. This article explains its invention and development throughout the years and at the end gives a timeline of those events. [Details...]

14. Hours of Work in U.S. History

This article presents estimates of the length of the historical workweek in the U.S., describes the history of the shorter-hours "movement," and examines the forces that drove the workweek's decline over time. [Details...]

15. Japan and the Myth of MITI

This article explains Japan's seemingly miraculous economic growth in the post WWII era by looking at the major factors in this case. [Details...]

16. Japanese Industrialization and Economic Growth

This article explains Japan's development through industrialization through four distinctive features: the proto-industrial base, invesment-led growth, total factor productivity growth, and dualism. [Details...]

17. Labor Unions in the United States

This article explores the nature and development of labor unions in the United States. It reviews the growth and recent decline of the American labor movement and makes comparisons with the experience of foreign labor unions to clarify particular aspects of the history of labor unions in the United States. [Details...]

18. Mechanical Cotton Picker

Until World War II, the Cotton South remained poor, backward, and un-mechanized. With minor exceptions, most tasks -- plowing, cultivating, and finally harvesting cotton -- were done by hand. The mechanical cotton picker played an indispensable role in the transition from the prewar South of over-population, sharecropping, and hand labor to the capital-intensive agriculture of the postwar South. [Details...]

19. Money in the American Colonies

This article explores money in the American Colonies by examining the various means of payments as well as describing controveries of the time. [Details...]

20. Multi-Sectoral Growth

A collection of articles providing a comprehensive coverage of the Multi-Sectoral Growth. The following topics are covered: The Uzawa Two-Sector Growth Model, Optimal Two-Sector Growth, and Heterogeneous Capital and Growth. [Details...]

21. Path Dependence

Several of the most prominent path-dependent features of the economy are technical standards, such as the "QWERTY" standard typewriter (and computer) keyboard and the "standard gauge" of railway track -- i.e., the width between the rails. The case of QWERTY has been particularly controversial and is discusses in this article. [Details...]

22. Research and Development

Research and development is the creation of knowledge to be used in products or processes. This article answers the questions of whether private R&D is productive, government R&D is productive, and whether R&D is worthy of special treatment. [Details...]

23. Rural Electrification Administration

The advent of the electric industry in the 1880s ushered forward a rapidly expanding domestic market in the United States. This article describes the origins of this phenomenon and the outcomes for today. [Details...]

24. Savings and Loan Industry (U.S.)

The savings and loan industry is the leading source of institutional finance for residential home mortgages in America. This article discusses the origins and the history thus far of this industry. [Details...]

25. The Depression of 1893

This article describes economic developments in the decades leading up to the depression; the performance of the economy during the 1890's; domestic and international causes of depression; and political and social responses to the depression. [Details...]

26. The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (16th - 17th Centuries)

This article describes the economy of the Netherlands up to the Sixteenth Century and discusses Dutch agriculture, fishing, textile, and other industries. [Details...]

27. The Economic History of Norway

This article splits the economic history of Norway into two major phases- before and after the nation gained its independence in 1814. [Details...]

28. The Economic History of Taiwan

This article describes the aboriginal economy and goes on to discuss Taiwan's economy when under various other country's rule. [Details...]

29. The Economics of the American Revolutionary War

This article discusses the economic causes of the Revolutionary War, the beginnings of the revolution, and the formation of a national government. [Details...]

30. The History of the Radio Industry in the United States to 1940

In this article the beginnings of radio is described and how after 1920 large corporations began to dominate the industry. [Details...]

31. The Marshall Plan, 1948-1951

The Marshall Plan was aimed at help the economies of Western Europe between 1948 and 1951. This article focuses on the competing interpretations of the effects of the Marshall Plan. [Details...]

32. The Neoclassical Growth Model

In the Harrod-Domar growth model, steady-state growth was unstable. In the popular term of the day, it was a "knife-edge" in the sense that any deviation from that path would result in a further move away from that path. However, Robert M. Solow (1956), Trevor Swan (1956) and, a bit later, James E. Meade (1961) contested this conclusion. They claimed that the capital-output ratio of the Harrod-Domar model should not be regarded as exogenous. In fact, they proposed a growth model where the capital-output ratio, v, was precisely the adjusting variable that would lead a system back to its steady-state growth path, i.e. that v would move to bring s/v into equality with the natural rate of growth (n). The resulting model has become famously known as the "Solow-Swan" or simply the "Neoclassical" growth model. [Details...]

33. The Protestant Ethic Thesis

This article summarizes German sociologist Max Weber's formulation, considers criticisms of Weber's thesis, and reviews evidence of linkages between cultural values and economic growth. [Details...]

34. The Roots of American Industrialization, 1790-1860

This article describes synergy between agriculture and manufacturing, manufactures which were produced for large market areas, the impact of transportation improvements, manufactures of Eastern and national markets, and the American manufacturing belt. [Details...]

35. The U.S. Economy in the 1920s

This article descibes the many things such as cars, traveling, electrical improvements, etc. which made the 1920's a distinct decade in its own right. [Details...]

36. The Works Progress Administration

This article begins with the Great Depression and the New Deal, discusses WPA projects and procedures and the distribution of WPA funds. [Details...]

37. Third World Economic Development

This article describes how the development experiences of Third World countries since the fifties have been staggeringly diverse- and hence very informative. [Details...]

38. Turnpikes and Toll Roads in Nineteenth-Century America

This article describes how turnpikes demonstrated how nineteenth-century Americans integrate elements of modern corporation-with its emphasis on profit-taking residual claimants- with non-pecuniary motivations such as use and esteem. [Details...]

39. Urban Mass Transit In The United States

In the United States mass transit has, for the most part, meant some kind of local bus or rail service, and it is on these modes that this article focuses. [Details...]

40. Women Workers in the British Industrial Revolution

Historians disagree about whether the British Industrial Revolution (1760-1830) was beneficial for women. However, this article focuses on how the Industrial Revolution was a time of important changes in the way that women worked. [Details...]

41. Workers' Compensation

This article discusses the origins of worker's compensation and trends in worker's compensation over the past century. [Details...]

Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Interactive Tutorial

42. Credibility of Economic Policy

This Learning Module will introduce you to the issue of economic policy credibility. Using a simple formal model, you can see how differences in public beliefs can cause the same policy action to produce different outcomes. For an analytical framework to evaluate public beliefs, examine six concepts relating to the credibility of economic policy. For real world experience, there are case summaries for you to consider. [Details...]

43. Economics General - Development economics

Tutorials, worsksheets, presentations, and other resources dealing with topics in development economics. [Details...]

44. Economics General - Economic growth

Tutorials, worksheets, presentations, etc, dealing with various topics in growth and development. [Details...]

45. Economics General - Macroeconomics. Intro

Listing of resources including articles, tutorials, and sample questions etc introducing basic ideas and schools of thought in Macroeconomics. [Details...]

46. Economics General - Market failure

Extensive resources, from tutorials, to case studies, to worksheets, dealing with market failure, especially from a development perspective. [Details...]

Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Web Site

47. Economic Growth in East Asia

Over the past three decades remarkable economic growth has occured in East Asia. This policy forum will examine key features of economic growth in eight East Asian economies: Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan/China, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. This forum will also focus on some central ideas of growth theory. Tools and concepts from growth theory provide important insights into the East Asian experience. This experience, in turn, also provides new insights into the process of economic growth. One goal of this forum is to confront growth theory with an important example of economic growth, and in doing so promote understanding of both growth theory and an outstanding growth experience. [Details...]

48. Economic Growth in East Asia

Over the past three decades remarkable economic growth has occured in East Asia. This policy forum will examine key features of economic growth in eight East Asian economies: Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan/China, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. This forum will also focus on some central ideas of growth theory. Tools and concepts from growth theory provide important insights into the East Asian experience. This experience, in turn, also provides new insights into the process of economic growth. One goal of this forum is to confront growth theory with an important example of economic growth, and in doing so promote understanding of both growth theory and an outstanding growth experience. [Details...]

49. Enterprise Restructuring in the former Soviet Union

Citizens of the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have recognized the potential benefits, observed in many different cultures and societies around the world, of private, market-driven enterprises. For more than half a century enterprises in the FSU have been subject to comprehensive state ownership and central planning. Prices and financing were typically of little concern to enterprise management, while workers did not have to worry about job security and received a wide range of social benefits through enterprises. While moving toward private, market-driven enterprises offers great promise for an improved standard of living for the average person, such a transition represents a fundamental social, psychological, and economic challenge. [Details...]

50. Mexican Economic Crisis, December 1994

This site explores the Mexican Economic Crisis through reviews and summaries, links to facts and background, and displaying statistical tables. [Details...]

51. Mexican Economic Crisis, December 1994

This site explores the Mexican Economic Crisis through reviews and summaries, links to facts and background, and displaying statistical tables. [Details...]

52. Unemployment in Eastern and Central Europe

Unemployment, once unknown and illegal in the formerly communist regimes in eastern and central Europe, has become a significant social and economic phenomenon. The rise in unemployment rates has been large but varied across countries. The transition from centrally planned economies to market-oriented economies has produced significant reductions in employment in the state sector as consumer-driven incentives begin to influence industrial structure. Reductions in employment in the state sector were partially offset by reductions in labor force particpation. Differences in the decline in labor force participation among countries led to significant differences in the relationship between unemployment growth and contraction in employment. However, the decline in labor force participation seems to be concentrated in the early stages of the transition, and in the future declining labor force participation is not likely to play as significant a role in dampening the growth of unemployment. [Details...]

Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - Course lecture

53. Analyzing Macro Equilibrium

Classical vs. Keynesian Economics [Details...]

54. Understanding Keynesian Economics

Keynesian economics in detail. [Details...]

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